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Dna transposons transposase

3 DNA-Transposons. Die vierte Klasse, die DNA-Transposons, machen einen Anteil von ca.3% im Genom aus und transponieren nicht mehr. Nur sehr wenige Gene des Menschen lassen sich auf diese Klasse der Transposons zurückführen, welche in den Familien MER-1 und MER-2 zusammengefasst wurden. Die DNA-Transposons werden nicht in cDNA umgeschrieben, sondern direkt ausgeschnitten und an einer anderen. Traditionally, DNA transposons move around in the genome by a cut and paste method. The system requires a transposase enzyme that catalyzes the movement of the DNA from its current location in the genome and inserts it in a new location. Transposition requires three DNA sites on the transposon: two at each end of the transposon called terminal inverted repeats and one at the target site

Transposon - DocCheck Flexiko

Als DNA-Transposon, oft kurz Transposon genannt, werden DNA-Sequenzen im Genom bezeichnet, die im Gegensatz zum Retrotransposon ohne eine RNA-Zwischenstufe ihren Locus verändern können.. DNA-Transposons sind begrenzt von einer kleinen (8-40 bp), gegenläufig-identischen, nicht informativen Nucleotidsequenz (inverted repeat oder IR). Diese sind für die Funktion der Transposase (das für das. Unter einer Transposase versteht man ein Enzym, das seine eigene codierende DNA-Sequenz über die Endonuklease-Funktion mit umliegenden Bereichen herausschneiden (konservative Transposition) oder über Replikation kopieren (replikative Transposition) und anschließend in einen anderen DNA-Bereich wieder integrieren kann. Transposasen binden an passende einzelsträngige DNA, die von zwei. DNA-Transposons, die zu klein sind, um ein Protein zu kodieren, bezeichnet man als Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs). Sie können sich nicht autonom verbreiten. Wie sie sich vermehren oder verschieben ist noch unklar. Möglicherweise war das Transposase-Gen einmal vorhanden und ist nun defekt oder verloren gegangen. Möglicherweise kopieren und verschieben sich. Die flankierte DNA codiert selbst für eine Transposase, welche die terminalen Sequenzwiederholungen erkennt, das gesamte Element aus der Donor-DNA herausschneidet (Exzision) und an einem anderen Locus im Genom wieder reintegriert (konservative Transposition, cut-and-paste-Mechanismus; vgl. Abb. 1d) Transposase is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyses its movement to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism. The word transposase was first coined by the individuals who cloned the enzyme required for transposition of the Tn3 transposon. The existence of transposons was postulated in the late 1940s by Barbara.

DNA transposon - Wikipedi

DNA-Transposon - Biologi

Eukaryotic DNA transposons can be divided into three major subclasses: (i) Once again, the frequency of the rearrangements and the prevalence of FB and other DNA transposons points to a transposase-triggered mechanism rather than passive ectopic recombination events. Transposase-induced rearrangements have long been recognized as a particular class of recombination events with a strong. DNA-Transposons sind begrenzt von einer kleinen (8-40bp), gegenläufig-identischen, nicht informativen Nucleotidsequenz (inverted repeat oder IR). Diese sind für die Funktion der Transposase (das für das Springen verantwortliche Enzym), zwingend notwendig.Des Weiteren sind DNA-Transposons auch von 3-13bp langen gleichgerichteten Wiederholungen (direct repeats) umgeben Two major categories of TEs inhabit eukaryotic genomes: retrotransposons move via an RNA intermediate copied back into DNA by an element-encoded reverse transcriptase, whereas DNA transposons move only as DNA, most of them using an element-encoded transposase (TPase) to perform cut-and-paste transposition (4, 5). The first category outnumbers the second in many species, presumably due in part. DNA-Transposons werden in der Regel durch konservative Transposition verschoben. Charakteristisch für DNA-Transposons sind spezielle, sich wiederholende, nicht-codierende Sequenzen vor und nach dem springenden Gen, die als Erkennungsstelle für die Transposase dienen (sogenannte inverted repeats oder IRs). Bei der konservativen Transposition wird eine komplette (also doppelsträngige) DNA.

Transposase - Wikipedi

Despite their enormous diversity and abundance, all currently known eukaryotic DNA transposons belong to only 15 superfamilies. Here, we report two new superfamilies of DNA transposons, named Sola and Zator.Sola transposons encode DDD-transposases (transposase, TPase) and are flanked by 4-bp target site duplications (TSD). Elements from the Sola superfamily are distributed in a variety of. Transposons are of two major types known as Class I Transposons and Class II Transposons. Usually, the Class II type is referred as the transposons and the Class I type is referred as the retrotransposons. The processes of cutting and pasting of mobile DNA segments are regulated by the enzyme transposase. The enzyme binds to the both ends of the transposon and cuts the phosphodiester bonds of. A programmable transposase integrates donor DNA at user-defined genomic target sites with high fidelity, revealing a new approach for genetic engineering that obviates the need for DNA double. Transposase also cleaves target sites where the element is to be inserted. Once the transposon is ligated (bound) into its new position, gaps that are left in the DNA sequence are filled in through the synthesis of nucleotides. Class II transposons range in length from 1,000 to as many as 40,000 base pairs. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements. MITEs are characterized by their short. Transposons sind von zwei Hauptarten, die als Klasse-I-Transposons und Klasse-II-Transposons bekannt sind. Normalerweise wird der Typ der Klasse II als die Transposons bezeichnet und der Typ der Klasse I wird als die Retrotransposons bezeichnet. Die Prozesse zum Schneiden und Einfügen von mobilen DNA-Segmenten werden durch das Enzym Transposase reguliert. Das Enzym bindet an beide Enden des.

DNA transposon-based gene vehicles - scenes from an

Die Bewegung der DNA-Transposons. DNA - Transposons in das Genom bewegen. Das System erfordert ein Transposase - Enzym, das die Bewegung der DNA von seiner aktuellen Position in dem Genom katalysiert und fügt sie in einer neuen Position. Umsetzung erfordert drei DNA Stellen auf dem Transposon zwei an jedem Ende der Transposons genannt terminalen invertierten Wiederholungen und eine andere an. Als DNA-Transposon, oft kurz Transposon genannt, werden DNA-Sequenzen im Genom bezeichnet, die im Gegensatz zum Retrotransposon ohne eine RNA-Zwischenstufe ihren Locus verändern können.. DNA-Transposons sind begrenzt von einer kleinen (8-40 bp), gegenläufig-identischen, nicht informativen Nucleotidsequenz (inverted repeat oder IR).Diese sind für die Funktion der Transposase (das für das.

For instance, the Tn5 that codes for transposase Tn5 as well as those for antibiotic resistance to kanamycin. 1 In eukaryotes, there are two classes of transposons. In the first class, the transposons is amplified by first transcribing a segment of DNA into RNA, and then reverse-transcribed into DNA Transposons Animation - DNA transposable elements - Duration: 3:18. Biology animation videos 208,345 views. 3:18. How to sequence the human genome - Mark J. Kiel - Duration: 5:05 Die Transposition eines Transposons braucht oft nur drei Teile: das Transposon, das Transposase - Enzym, und der Ziel - DNA für die Insertion des Transposons. Dies ist der Fall mit Tn5, das zum Bewegen rund Transposons einen Cut-and-Paste - Mechanismus verwendet. Tn5 und den meisten anderen Transposasen enthalten ein DDE-Motiv, das die aktive Stelle ist, die die Bewegung des Transposons. DNA-transposons are divided in the four classes of cut and paste, self-synthesizing, replicative and rolling-circle, thus describing their mechanisms of mobilization. In a cut and paste mobilization, the transposon is enzymatically cut from the insertion site by the transposase

Transposon - Biologi

  1. Transposable elements (TEs), also called transposons, are DNA sequences that move within or among genomes. Transposons were first discovered by Barbara McClintock, who labeled them controlling elements (McClintock 1956)
  2. Mariner transposases are thought to facilitate insertion of mariner transposons around the genome by cutting double-stranded, TA-rich DNA, thereby allowing insertion of the transposon
  3. g genomes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. They transpose through a cut-and-paste mechanism whereby the transposase (generally encoded by the element) catalyzes the excision of the transposon from one chromosomal site and its reinsertion elsewhere in the genome. This process has two key.
  4. Transposase DNA-übertragbare Elemente Nucleotidyltransferasen Recombinasen DNA-Nucleotidyltransferasen Bakterien-DNA Integrase Bakterielle Proteine DNA-bindende Proteine DNA Retroelemente Cyclo-AMP. Medizintechnik 5. Sequenzanalyse, DNA-Sequenzvergleich Mutagenese, Insertions-Contrast Sensitivity Click Chemistry. Psychiatrie und Psychologie 1. Contrast Sensitivity. Biologie 25. DNA.
  5. Regulation of Transposition All organisms contain transposons in their genomes, and it is clear that the frequency of transposition must be controlled. The population biology is as for any parasite: the transposon cannot replicate too aggressively, since it should not affect the fitness of the host too much

Although DNA transposons are more efficient with large transgenes, random integrations are potentially mutagenic. Here we present an in vitro mechanistic study that demonstrates efficient Cas9 targeting of the mariner transposon Hsmar1. Integrations were unidirectional and tightly constrained to one side of the sgRNA binding site The transposons present into the bacteria are DNA transposons contain transposase and antibiotic resistance coding genes. IS, Tn5, Tn7, Tn10, Tn3 and Mu phage are some of the most studied transposons present into the bacteria. The organization and behaviour of the eukaryotic transposons came in light after the study of the molecular structure of the bacteria transposons. The transposons or the. Vibrio cholerae Tn6677 (VcTn6677) is one of the first characterized Tn7-like CRISPR-associated transposons. 7 VcTn6677 encodes a nuclease-deficient, DNA-targeting type I-F Cascade complex. Class II Transposons. Class II transposons move by a cut and paste process: the transposon is cut out of its location (like command/control-X on your computer) and inserted into a new location (command/control-V).This process requires an enzyme — a transposase — that is encoded within some of these transposons.. Fig.10.4.1 Transposons. Transposase binds to both ends of the transposon. DNA transposons belonging to the Academ superfamily have been reported from various animals, one red algal species Chondrus crispus, and one fungal species Puccinia graminis. Six Academ families from P. graminis encode a helicase in addition to putative transposase, while some other families encode a single protein which contains a putative transposase and an XPG nuclease. Systematic searches.

Transposons ask

Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost al Here we characterize a CRISPR-associated transposase from cyanobacteriaScytonema hofmanni (ShCAST) that consists of Tn7-like transposase subunits and the type V-K CRISPR effector (Cas12k)... Bacterial genomes encode numerous homologs of Cas9, the effector protein of the type II CRISPR-Cas systems. The homology region includes the arginine-rich helix and the HNH nuclease domain that is inserted into the RuvC-like nuclease domain. These genes, however, are not linked to cas genes or CRISPR. Here, we show that Cas9 homologs represent a distinct group of nonautonomous transposons. Transposase binds to: both ends of the transposon, which consist of inverted repeats; that is, identical sequences reading in opposite directions. a sequence of DNA that makes up the target site

Transposonen - Lexikon der Biologi

Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms A transposase is a protein that binds to the ends of a transposon - a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity - and catalyses its movement to another part of the genome Conjugative transposons (CTns; also referred to as integrative conjugative elements) constitute a major class of DNA transposons that can self-sufficiently move between bacterial genomes. They harbor resistance genes against many different antibiotics in diverse bacteria. Most CTns in Gram-positive pathogens belong to the large Tn 916-like family, members of which confer resistance to all. DNA transposons are primitive genetic elements which have colonized living organisms from plants to bacteria and mammals. Through evolution such parasitic elements have shaped their host genomes by replicating and relocating between chromosomal loci in processes catalyzed by the transposase proteins encoded by the elements themselves Ein Transposon bezieht sich auf ein chromosomales Segment, das zwischen Chromosomen-, Plasmid- oder Phagen-DNA transloziert werden kann. Transposons sind auch bekannt als umsetzbare Elemente (TE). Die Transposition erfolgt in Abwesenheit einer komplementären Sequenz in der Wirts-DNA. Transposons verursachen Mutationen im Genom

Zu einem Transposon gehört ein Gen für ein spezielles Enzym (Ac-Transposase), das bestimmte Signale (Ds-Sequenzen) in der DNA erkennt, genau dort Stücke aus der DNA herausschneidet und sie an einer anderen, nicht vorhersagbaren Stelle wieder in die Erbsubstanz integriert Dna Transposons. The typical architecture of DNA transposons includes a gene encoding a transposase for transposition, flanked by two TIRs. DNA transposons can be classified into diverse families, which differ in terms of target site recognition, TSDs, TIRs, and transposon DNA sequences

Als DNA-Transposon, oft kurz Transposon genannt, werden DNA-Sequenzen im Genom bezeichnet, die im Gegensatz zum Retrotransposon ohne eine RNA-Zwischenstufe ihren Locus verändern können.. DNA-Transposons sind begrenzt von einer kleinen (8-40 bp), gegenläufig-identischen, nicht informativen Nucleotidsequenz (inverted repeat oder IR). Diese sind für die Funktion der Transposase (das für. DNA transposons are mobile DNA elements that can move from one DNA molecule to another. Transposases are a type of enzyme that can bind to the inverted sequences on both ends of a transposon. The typical architecture of DNA transposons includes a gene encoding a transposase for trans-position, flanked by two TIRs. DNA transposons can be classified into diverse families, which differ intermsoftargetsiterecognition,TSDs,TIRs,and transposon DNA sequences. Some of these DNA transposon subgroups are employed for human gene therapy to achieve sustained gene expression of the. DNA Transposons: Different Proteins and Mechanisms but Similar Rearrangements, p 467-497. In Higgins N (ed) Major differences to note are initial strand-cleavage events, transposase-DNA covalent linkages, role of DNA replication, circular intermediates, target-site duplications, and fate of the donor DNA. Citation: Derbyshire K, Grindley N. 2005. DNA Transposons: Different Proteins and. Transposons Animation - DNA transposable elements (Juni 2020). Untransposon ist ein genetisches Element, das sich bewegen, ausschneiden und in ein Genom passen kann. Transposons oder transponierbare genetische Elemente nehmen an der Evolution von Genomen, der Vergrößerung ihrer Größe und der biologischen Vielfalt teil. Die Insertion und der Austritt der Transposons führen zu.

Transposons (sometimes called jumping genes) are DNA sequences with associated proteins — transposases — that allow the DNA to be cut-and-pasted into other places. Most transposons appear to jump randomly throughout the cellular genome and out to viruses or plasmids that may also be inhabiting a cell. However, some transposon subtypes. DNA transposons move from one genomic location to another by a cut-and-paste mechanism. They are powerful forces of genetic change and have played a significant role in the evolution of many genomes. As genetic tools, DNA transposons can be used to introduce a piece of foreign DNA into a genome. Indeed, they have been used for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in different organisms. DNA transposons were highly active during mammalian radi-ation and early primate evolution, with no evidence of elements younger than approximately 37 My [15]. Among them, mariner elements were amplified 45 My ago and the HsMar1 sub-family is probably the only one to display a current quite active copy. The modern hu-man genome contains about 250 defective HsMar1 cop-ies (almost full. structed transposons defined by two IEs are also substrates for transposase. The 19-bp IE is identical to OE at 12 positions (Fig. 1). In Escherichia coli, four adenines (positions 11 and 16 of the nontransferred strand and 12 and 17 of the transferred strand) in IE are methylated by Dam methylase to yield IEME. This methylation of the DNA inhibits Tnp binding (7, 18). Wild-type Tn5 Tnp (Tnp. DNA transposons are no longer active and require an autonomous element in trans to transpose. In maize, cis-acting transposon regulatory mechanisms are thought to include DNA methylation. Transposase promoter se-quences from McClintock's Activator and Suppressor-Mutator transposons, for example, are hypomethylated in the active state, although the rest of the element is methylated.

Genetics: What Are Transposons? | HubPages

Transposon - Kompaktlexikon der Biologi

DNA transposons consist of a transposase gene that is flanked by two Terminal In-verted Repeats (TIRs) (Fig. 1). The transposase recognizes these TIRs to perform the excision of the transposon DNA body, which is inserted into a new genomic location (see below for further details). Upon insertion, target site DNA is duplicated, resulting in Target Site Duplications (TSDs), which represent a. Some transposons in bacteria carry — in addition to the gene for transposase — genes for one or more (usually more) proteins imparting resistance to antibiotics. When such a transposon is incorporated in a plasmid, it can leave the host cell and move to another. This is the way that the alarming phenomenon of multidrug antibiotic resistance spreads so rapidly Transposons, segments of DNA that can mobilize to other locations in a genome, are often used for insertion mutagenesis or to generate priming sites for sequencing of large DNA molecules. For both of these uses, a transposon with minimal insertion bias is desired to allow complete coverage with minimal oversampling. Three transposons, Mu, Tn5, and Tn7, were used to generate insertions in the. Class II: DNA transposons. The major difference of Class II transposons from retrotransposons is that their transposition mechanism does not involve an RNA intermediate. Class II transposons usually move by cut and paste, rather than copy and paste, using the transposase enzyme. Different types of transposase work in different ways. Some can. DNA transposons are small genetic entities that can relocate within the genome. However, they tend to accu-mulate mutations and become inactive during evolution. The use of transposable elements in mammalian cells was fueled by mutagenesis-based re-awakening of the SB transposon from the genome of salmonid fish (3). Also, PB, derived from the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni, proved to be.

Transposons: Mobile DNA - Biology Page

Ciliated protists rearrange their genomes dramatically during nuclear development via chromosome fragmentation and DNA deletion to produce a trimmer and highly reorganized somatic genome. The deleted portion of the genome includes potentially active transposons or transposon-like sequences that reside in the germline. Three independent studies recently showed that transposase proteins of the. Transposons can be used to integrate transgenes into the host cell chromosome or characterize specific gene function by disrupting gene function via insertion in or near genes ().Besides, one of the features of transposons is that the transposase sequence can be separated from the transposon by genetic engineering -Transposase cleaves TE and target DNA-The TE is probably ligated to target DNA with the cell's enzymes. Replicative DNA Transposons -New copy of the TE is introuced at a new site while the old copy remains at the original site-Two DNA molecules are joined and TE is replicated, producing cointegrate (one large DNA molecules with two TEs)-There is crossing over at regions in the TEs-Resolution. directly propagate as DNA by jumping to new sites within host genome (only transport their own sequences internally within the genome, unlike plasmids and phages); no other form except integrated DNA; no relationship b/w its sequences and those of the target site (non-homologous recombination); encode transposase; common in both eukaryotes and prokaryote

Transposon - Chemie-Schul

Transposons are found to encode a special protein named as transposase which catalyses the process of transposition. Transposons are particular to different groups of organisms. They constitute a fairly accountable fraction of genome of organisms like fungi, bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Transposons have had a major impact on changing or altering the genetic composition of organisms DNA-Transposons kodieren zumeist nur ein Enzym, die Transposase (Abb. 2). Diese erkennt sequenzspezifisch die Enden eines Transposons und schneidet es aus der DNA heraus, um es an einer anderen.

RNA-guided DNA insertion with CRISPR-associated

Transposons are larger transposable elements, ranging in size from 2500 to 21,000 bp. Three-dimensional structure of the Tn5 transposase in complex with Tn5 transposon DNA. A. The dimer of the Tn5 transposase is shown bound to a fragment of duplex DNA from the end of the transposon. Alpha helices are green cylinders, beta sheets are yellow-brown, flat arrows and protein loops are blue. Transposase, Transposons and Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria; In the present article of this series, we are going to discuss some more point on transposons. Here we will study some of the most common types of TE in different eukaryotes and their structure. The present article is more focused and contains information regarding the theoretical understanding. Key Topics: Key point: The general. The PB transposase will remove the transposons from the genome, footprint-free. The PiggyBac Transposon System has two parts 1. PiggyBac transposase expression vector (PB210PA-1-SBI or PB220PA-1-SBI) 2. PiggyBac transposon vector of your choice The PiggyBac all-in-one inducible vector (PBQM812A-1-SBI) will require the cumate solution (PBQM100A-1-SBI) for induction. BioCat/SBI are fully. DNA transposons (Lander et al. 2001). It was hypothesized that these transposon genes have been inactivated, with the exception of the RAG proteins, because unregulated DNA mobility would be deleterious to primates, producing either apoptosis or malignancy (Beck et al. 2008; Lander et al. 2001). The transposase family of enzymes contains a.

Ac transposase, AcTPase, APM_2825, DbuzGalileo, DNA transposase, ECO103_3558, Galileo transposase, Hermes, IS10 transposase, IS1341-type transposase, more top print hide show all columns Go to Synonym Searc DNA segments that carry the genes required for transposition are transposable elements or transposons, sometimes called jumping genes. Unlike other processes that reorganize DNA, transposition does not require extensive areas of homology between the transposon and its destination site Transposase is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyzes its movement to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism. The word transposase was first coined by the individuals who cloned the enzyme required for transposition of the Tn3 transposon.

Transpositional site-specific recombination - презентацияTransposable Genetic Elements in ProkaryotesTn5 transposase - scientific illustrationTransposons: the jumping genesTransposable elements

Transposons are regions of mobile DNA that can jump from one location in the genome to another. This represents a genetic burden to the host because there is always the risk that the transposon will inactivate a cellular gene. However, a greater problem is that transposition is accompanied by an increase in the number of copies of the transposon Transposase DNA-übertragbare Elemente Nucleotidyltransferasen Recombinasen DNA-Nucleotidyltransferasen Bakterien-DNA Integrase Bakterielle Proteine DNA-bindende Proteine DNA. Medizintechnik 3. Sequenzanalyse, DNA-Sequenzvergleich Mutagenese, Insertions-Biologie 22. DNA-übertragbare Elemente Inverted Repeat Sequences DNA Cleavage Genome, Bacterial Base Sequence Phylogeny Amino Acid Sequence. Transposons are classified as either RNA transposons that transpose through an RNA intermediate or as DNA transposons that transpose via a DNA intermediate (F innegan 1990) DNA transposons are characterized by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and are mobilized by an element-encoded transposase. The piggyBac transposon/transposase system is particularly useful because of the precision with which the transposon is integrated and excised (see for example Fraser, M. J. (2001) The TTAA-Specific Family of Transposable Elements: Identification, Functional.

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